1. Some central North Island Māori grew cabbage trees (Cordyline australis) for their edible rhizomes (roots). It was saved from extinction because its dwarf form found favour with gardeners and it came to be known as Cordyline 'Kirkii' recording the interest Thomas Kirk had in the plant. For each of the 1000 Māori place names on this page we’ve provided a translation of its component parts and its overall meaning. Another factor is temperature, especially the degree of frost. Other early cultivars included 'Veitchii' (1871) with crimson midribs, 'Atrosanguinea' (1882) with bronze leaves infused with red, 'Atropurpurea' (1886) and 'Purpurea' (1890) with purple leaves, and a range of variegated forms: 'Doucetiana' (1878), 'Argento-striata' (1888) and 'Dalleriana' (1890). It is absent from much of Fiordland, probably because there is no suitable habitat, and is unknown on the subantarctic islands to the south of New Zealand, probably because it is too cold. The area takes its name from the Cabbage Tree Palm (Livistona Australia), as the palms were prevalent in the area in the early days. Flowering takes place over a period of four to six weeks, giving maximum exposure to pollinating insects. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8 and is not frost tender. ISBN 0790004941 (pbk). (noun) dwarf cabbage tree, pigmy cabbage tree, Cordyline pumilio - found in the northern half of the North Island in scrubby areas. [12] Even though its natural distribution ranges from 34° S to 46°S, and despite its ultimately tropical origins, it also grows at about five degrees from the Arctic Circle in Masfjorden, Norway, latitude 61ºN, in a microclimate protected from arctic winds and moderated by the Gulf Stream. It does well in pots and tubs. In the U.K. they are known as Torquay palm. Other names refer to its uses—whether its fruit attracted birds (tī manu), or the leaves were particularly suitable for making ropes (tī whanake) and nets (tī kupenga). Although adult trees can store water and are drought resistant, seedlings need a good supply of water to survive. Another requirement is water during the seedling stage. The plight of Cordyline australis in the Sudden Decline epidemic drew attention to another widespread threat to the tree in rural areas throughout New Zealand. spherical berries Cordyline pumilio, commonly known as the Dwarf cabbage tree, Pygmy cabbage tree or by its Māori names Tī koraha or Tī rauriki, is a narrow-leaved monocot shrub endemic to New Zealand. Leaves provided juice used externally for cuts, cracks and sores. [26] The greatest number of dead trees (18 to 26 percent) was recorded around Auckland.[65]. The young tree has long narrow leaves which arise from a single trunk. Te Reo Māori (the Māori language) is marked by beautiful words, proverbs and phrases that carry a lot of cultural and spiritual meaning. Leaves rubbed until soft were applied as an ointment to cuts, skin cracks and sore hands. [47] In modern New Zealand, cabbage trees usually grow as isolated individuals rather than as parts of a healthy ecosystem. Fire danger 'explosive' 19 January 2004 by Jill Worrall, Timaru Herald The nor-west winds that battered South Canterbury yesterday have heightened the fire danger to "explosion point". • A coloured Tī Kouka picture card The common name cabbage tree is attributed by some sources to early settlers having used the young leaves as a substitute for cabbage. Photo © Leon Perrie. When Captain james Cook came upon “a cabbage tree which we cut down for the sake of the cabbage” at Tolaga Bay in October 1769, he was referring to a nikau palm, not the ti or Cordyline australis which now bears this common name.. [21], A study of seedlings grown from seed collected in 28 areas showed a north-south change in leaf shape and dimensions. [4] Hybrids with C. pumilio and C. banksii also occur often where the plants are in close vicinity, because they flower at about the same time and share the chromosome number 2n=38, with C. Native, found throughout the range of cabbage trees; Life History. The last name is due to its extensive use in Torbay, it being the official symbol of that area, used in tourist posters promoting South Devon as the English Riviera. [83] One of these, called tī para or tī tāwhiti, was grown because it suckers readily and forms multiple fleshy rhizomes. [50] The flowers produce a sweet perfume which attracts large numbers of insects. The fallen leaves of the tree also help to raise the fertility of the soil when they break down. Each branch may fork after producing a flowering stem. [4][9][14][15], The long narrow leaves are sword-shaped, erect, dark to light green, 40 to 100 cm (16 to 39 in) long and 3 to 7 cm (1 to 3 in) wide at the base, with numerous parallel veins. While it is said that they foretell dry summers, it has been observed that they tend to follow dry seasons. Growth of leaves ceases, and eventually all the leaves fall, leaving dead branches, often with the dried-out flowering panicles still attached. tī koraha Play. Affected trees usually suffer total defoliation within 2 to 12 months. Common names: mountain cabbage tree (Eng. [26] In Taranaki, cabbage trees generally have a compact canopy with broad straight leaves. The trees near East Cape, by contrast, have leaves that hang laxly on the tree. Cordyline pumilio, commonly known as the dwarf cabbage tree, pygmy cabbage tree or by its Māori names tī koraha or tī rauriki, is a narrow-leaved monocot shrub endemic to New Zealand. As tī kōuka grow old and stems die, shoots can grow from the trunk. ), bergkiepersol (Afr. [68], In traditional times, Māori had a rich knowledge of the cabbage tree, including spiritual, ecological and many practical aspects of its use. Cabbage trees grow all over New Zealand in a range of habitats from coastal areas through to inland foothills. They grow all over the country, but prefer wet, open areas like swamps. In the Stewart Island region, it is rare,[42] growing only on certain islands, headlands and former settlement sites where it may have been introduced by muttonbird collectors,[43] while on the Chatham Islands it is also largely "a notable absentee". Cordyline australis Cordyline australis on farmland, South Island, New Zealand Provided in 2 different sets - one with names and the other without names. [15], Large, peg-like rhizomes, covered with soft, purplish bark, up to 3 metres (10 feet) long in old plants, grow vertically down beneath the ground. It produces berries that birds like to eat. Many of the insect companions of the tree have followed it into the domesticated surroundings of parks and home gardens. The tree can also be found in large numbers in island restoration projects such as Tiritiri Matangi Island,[8] where it was among the first seedling trees to be planted.[9]. [60], A tough fibre was extracted from the leaves of C. australis, and was valued for its strength and durability especially in seawater. [54], Cordyline australis is one of the few New Zealand forest trees that can recover from fire. MĀORI NAME: T ī (general name for ... Get some ti i ti leaves from a cabbage tree. As with other foods gathered, the first tree cut was kept as an offering to the gods to ensure that everything went well with the cooking process. In November the trees were cut. used for making anchor ropes and fishing lines, cooking mats, baskets, sandals and leggings for protection when travelling in the South Island high country, home of the prickly speargrasses (Aciphylla) and tūmatakuru or matagouri (Discaria toumatou). The hangi or umu (oven) was huge, a square shape up to 20 metres in length. At the same time, the bark on the trunk becomes loose and detaches easily. [78], Cordyline australis is one of the most widely cultivated New Zealand native trees. Each year there was a regular season for kauru which went from November through to March. [57], The nectar of the flowers is sought after by insects, bellbirds, tui, and stitchbirds. Absent from much of Fiordland, it was probably introduced by Māori to the Chatham Islands at 44° 00′S and to Stewart Island at 46° 50′S. A few native plants were cultivated for food, although perhaps not as intensively as the Polynesian crops. Tī kōuka (sometimes simply tī) is a familiar part of many landscapes around New Zealand. During the years of settlement, they were often used to line the chimney space on early dwellings as they were quite fire resistant. This involved using a toki (axe) to cut the trees about a foot above the ground so that the trees could be re-cut again after a time of recovery. 04 of 07. [28] Europeans used the plant to make alcohol, and the often fearsome brews were relished by whalers and sealers. ), umsenge (X, Sw) umsengembuzi (Z) SA Tree No: 563 . Often the growth layer dies and the injuries may lead to bacterial or fungal infections that spread into the branches until the canopy too begins to die. If you are still seeing this message and JavaScript is enabled in your browser then please either contact the library or fill in our technical support form and we will try to fix the problem. FAMILY: Laxmanniaceae Cabbage tree family BOTANICAL NAME: Cordyline australis MĀORI NAME: Tī (general name for Cordyline ); TĪ KŌUKA , tī kāuka, tī rākau, tī whanake (South Island [Shortland]), tī pua, tī para, tī awe: kōuka tarariki (narrow leaved variety), kōuka wharanui (broad-leaved variety); kiokio (in Moteatea, Grey 1853 , recorded in Williams 1971 ). "[61] As the native birds have vanished from much of New Zealand with the clearing of forests, it is now flocks of starlings which descend upon the fruit. australis. In Māori legend the name for the Cromwell basin was “Tirau”, many cabbage trees. Luckily, the kauru logs became lighter after the cooking process. While much of that specialised knowledge was lost after the European settlement of New Zealand, the use of the tree as food and medicine has persisted, and the use of its fibres for weaving is becoming more common. They serve to anchor the plant and to store fructose in the form of fructan. The climate there is an extreme one, with hot, dry summers and cold winters. The syndrome, eventually called Sudden Decline, soon reached epidemic proportions in Northland and Auckland. Hangehange leaves were used as a flavouring in Māori cuisine. [4][17] Like other Cordyline species, C. australis can produce sports which have very attractive colouration, including pink stripes and leaves in various shades of green, yellow or red. [77] The leaves were also used for rain capes, although the mountain cabbage tree C. indivisa, was preferred. Natural and planted groves of the cabbage tree were harvested. On the river flats, the trees are tall with narrow, lax, dark green leaves, and an uneven canopy. It is also grown as an ornamental tree in higher latitude Northern Hemisphere countries with maritime climates, including parts of the upper West Coast of the United States, Canada and the British Isles, where its common names include Torbay palm[10][11] and Torquay palm. We are currently open five days a week and cater for functions such as weddings, birthdays, and corporate meetings. Storage whata were used to keep the kauru dry until ready for eating. [9][71], The Māori used various parts of Cordyline australis to treat injuries and illnesses, either boiled up into a drink or pounded into a paste. Cabbage Tree Botanical name: Cordyline australis Maori name: Ti kouka means ‘tongues of chattering women’ Habitat: They grow all over the country, but prefer wet, open areas like swamps and scrubland in the North and South Islands. Family Asparagaceae . The young inner leaves are eaten both raw and cooked. [17], Insects, including beetles, moths, wasps and flies, use the bark, leaves and flowers of the tree in various ways. "[33] Forster may have been referring to the cabbage palmetto (Sabal palmetto) of Florida, which resembles the Cordyline somewhat, and was named for the cabbage-like appearance of its terminal bud. FAMILY: Laxmanniaceae Cabbage tree family BOTANICAL NAME: Cordyline australis MĀORI NAME: Tī (general name for Cordyline ); TĪ KŌUKA, tī kāuka, tī rākau, tī whanake (South Island [Shortland]), tī pua, tī para, tī awe: kōuka tarariki (narrow leaved variety), kōuka wharanui (broad-leaved variety); kiokio (in Moteatea, Grey 1853 , recorded in Williams 1971 ). Bees use the nectar to produce a light honey to feed their young and increase the size of the hive in the early summer. It is in leaf all year, in flower from August to September. Hardy and fast growing, it grows up to 66 ft. tall. At a certain season, the pigeons came in vast flocks to feed on the white berries of the Ti tree (bracœna) [sic] and got so heavy with fat that they could hardly fly from one tree to another. The trunk becomes misshapen or completely ring-barked for a metre above the ground. C.paniculata is also sometimes to be found in gardens. Māori textile fabrics; Māori weaving; Tāniko; Tukutuku (decorative woven panels) Plants. Cabbage Tree or Cabbage-palm is a widely branched monocot tree endemic to New Zealand. On old trees, the leaves tend to be relatively broad. Before it flowers, it has a slender unbranched stem. They grow from a layer called the secondary thickening meristem. The Maori language (Te Reo) belongs to the Polynesian sub-family of languages, a fact which enabled Captain Cook's Tahitian interpreter, Tupaia, to translate for him on his initial voyage of discovery to New Zealand in 1769. Conveniently, too, the leaves made fine kindling. Trees in the southern North Island and northern South Island are generally unaffected with few dead branches and no symptoms of Sudden Decline. Harakeke - Explores the history and tikanga of harakeke, and how it is harvested and woven. Astelia species and Collospermum often establish in the main fork of the tree, and one tree can host several species of native orchid. There may also be invisible adaptations for resistance to disease or insect attack. After a first cut in November, there was still time for a second cut and cook session before the onset of winter in March. [22] Some trees in the far north have floppy, narrow leaves, which botanist Philip Simpson attributes to hybridisation with C. pumilio, the dwarf cabbage tree. WORDS: BEN GAIA If you’ve got cabbage trees in your garden or orchard, you probably don’t think of them fondly. Integrating three worlds: sustaining the cabbage tree. It provided durable fibre for textiles, anchor ropes, fishing lines, baskets, waterproof rain capes and cloaks, and sandals. The large baskets were then layered in the huge oven, covered with more leaves and earth to keep the heat in and then steamed for twenty–four hours. [69] Other factors thought to contribute to Rural Decline include wood-rotting fungi like Phanerochaete cordylines, micro-organisms which cause saprobic decay and leaf-feeding caterpillars. In some areas, particularly in the north, no big trees are left. The fertility of the soil is another factor—settlers in Canterbury used the presence of the species to situate their homesteads and gardens. This evergreen tree makes a beautiful focal point in a garden as it has an unusual shape, interesting gnarled bark and stunning, large, grey-green leaves. Māori language newspapers emerged as a political forum between the colonial state and Māori, to inform Māori about legislation, land sales and British social customs. [23] In eastern Northland, C. australis generally has narrow, straight dark green leaves, but some trees have much broader leaves than normal and may have hybridised with the Three Kings cabbage tree, C. obtecta, which grows at North Cape and on nearby islands. Aerial rhizomes can also be produced from the trunk if it sustains damage or has become hollow, and grow down into the soil to regenerate the plant. Tōtara is covered in thick, stringy bark and can live for over 1000 years. [26], Wharanui grow to the west of the North Island's main divide. The Highveld Cabbage Tree (Cussonia paniculata) is an evergreen tree that grows up to 4m tall. The Kilmog is the name of the second hill on the northern side of Dunedin, just south of Waikouaiti. Tī kōuka proved a useful source of fibre for early Māori. This stops the species from growing in sand dunes unless there are wet depressions present, and from hillsides unless there is a seepage area. New Plymouth plant breeders Duncan and Davies included hybrids of C. australis and C. banksii in their 1925 catalogue, and have produced many new cultivars since. Cook called it a cabbage tree because the young leaves are edible, and his name has stuck. The Common Cabbage tree has long grey stems with smooth bark. In 1880 there were 35 Cabbagestalk families living in South Carolina. The latter two forms extend down the West Coast, with the lax-leaved forms growing in moist, fertile, sheltered river valleys while the bluish-leaved forms prefer rocky slopes exposed to the full force of the salt-laden coastal winds. Chatham Island Christmas tree/rautini The spectacular tree daisy Rautini, sometimes known as the Chatham Island Christmas tree, can grow up to 8 metres tall. Caterpillars feed on the young unopened leaves of cabbage tree (Cordyline australis) Nocturnal feeding activity leaves holes and notches in the expanding leaves; Caterpillars pupate amongst debris at base of tree trunk; Adults perfectly camouflaged on dead cabbage tree leaves; Further information. With its tall, straight trunk and dense, rounded heads, it is a characteristic feature of the New Zealand landscape. [20] Some of these regional provenances are different enough to have been named by North Island Māori: tītī in the north, tī manu in the central uplands, tarariki in the east and wharanui in the west. [4][14][16], The individual flowers are 5 to 6 mm (3⁄16 to 1⁄4 in) in diameter, the tepals are free almost to the base, and reflexed. In Marlborough's Wairau Valley, cabbage trees tend to retain their old, dead leaves, lending them an untidy appearance. This variety is found throughout the country in a variety of habitats. [59] Māori sometimes planted groves of cabbage trees (pā tī) to attract pigeons which could be snared when they came to eat the berries. Abstract:" ... Looks at conservation issues, the future of cabbage trees in the landscape, individual trees notable for their age, great size or cultural significance, and cabbage trees overseas. In Aotearoa, tara refers to things that are sharply pointed, like the rays of the sun, or the peak of a mountain. Cabbage trees are good colonising species, growing happily … By the start of the 19th century vegetable growing had become a highly profitable enterprise for some coastal tribes who sold or traded their vegetables with whalers, sealers and the first European settlers. Tī Kōuka — the cabbage tree - Tī kōuka is strong, durable, and doesn’t shrink in water. View other plants in this family QR code link View other plants in this genus. Eventually the tissue in the centre of the stem rots away and a cavity forms along its entire length. 16 [84], Cordyline 'Ti Tawhiti' was "the subject of an intense discussion amongst the leading botanists of New Zealand at a meeting of the Royal Society ... in Wellington 100 years ago. [4][14] The leaves grow in crowded clusters at the ends of the branches, and may droop slightly at the tips and bend down from the bases when old. [57], The berries of C. australis are enjoyed by bellbirds, tui and pigeons. New Zealand’s Cabbage Tree, Tī Kōuka (Canterbury University Press, 2000) ... Māori brought the name with them from Polynesia. Māori lived in their pā where whānau groupings were the basic economic unit for supporting their way of life. The young shoot was eaten by nursing mothers and given to children for colic. I use the A Dictionary of Maori Plant Names by James Beever (1991, Auckland Botanical Society) as my guide to Māori names for plants.) [78] The seeds of Cordyline australis are high in linoleic acid, one of the essential fatty acids. Māori valued the narrow spiky leaves as a source of particularly tough, durable fibre. [13] The right conditions can reduce the first flowering age to 3 years (Havelock North, 2015 mast year). [9][71] The southern limit of kumara (sweet potato) cultivation was at Banks Peninsula at 43°S, and south of there a culture developed around C. australis. Different trees were selected for their degree of bitterness, which should be strong for medicinal use, but less so when used as a vegetable. [45] This form resembles that found in the far south of the South Island, suggesting that they are both adapted to cold conditions. Shoots were boiled and the liquid taken to treat stomach pains. Scrape out the softened part and the juice. The latter may serve to protect the seeds from the digestive process in the gut of a bird. [57] New Zealand bellbirds like to nest under the dead leaves or among the flower stalks, and paradise shelducks commonly build their nests in the base of an old cabbage tree standing in the middle of a field. Cook called it a cabbage tree because the young leaves are edible, and his name has stuck. 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