According to the poet, Punjabis are guilty of neglecting their mother tongue. 38 According to him, communalism is a form of colonialist knowledge. There is a need to start rethinking the language policy of the Federal Government in regards to Punjab. The idea behind the project of Gilchrist was not to create an instrument of wider communication for the people of India. As discussed above, the diminishing secular, open and generous tendencies in modern Punjabi literature were accelerated under the influence of Western literature. [56] The purpose of this colonial survey was to find a suitable language to replace Persian as the official language. Under the impact of Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform organization, the Hindus had already adopted Hindi as communal symbol of Hindu nationalism and Sikhs began constructing their minority identity through Punjabi language and literature under the influence of the Singh Sabha movement. 13-ago-2019 - LANGUAGES IN PUNJAB Punjabi is the most spoken language of Pakistan . . I am the speech of those, who never cared to give me any regard. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh -most widely spoken in India and spoken Punjabi diaspora in various countries. Territorially apart, vast sections of Punjabi speaking people within the new Punjab and many outside in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi were alienated from the Punjabi language. The modern Punjabi language was unfortunately deprived of the richness of the pan-Indian experience of this literary tradition. Punjabi is spoken by immigrants who migrated to USA, Canada, U.K., Australia and Singapore. It is also spoken across the world by a sizable number of people that have moved away from the Punjab region. [19] The contention over the scripts in Punjab caused Gurmukhi to become the symbol of the separate identity of Sikhs. In the nineteenth century, the language of medieval literary texts was Braj in Gurmukhi script, but Bhai Vir Singh chose spoken Punjabi as a medium for his writings. Sindhi: is spoken by people in the Northwest frontier of the Indian sub-continent and by the people migrated from Pakistan during the period of the partition of India. He came to believe that Hindi could be the foundation for the edifice of Indian nationalism. The language divide in Punjab has another interesting aspect. The people living in areas close to Rajasthan have a sprinkling of Rajasthani in the Haryanvi they speak. [4] In fact, this situation prevailed in all the provinces of North India in which the Hindu and Muslim populations were numerically balanced--albeit rather precariously. Some Punjabi sayings ridicule the adoption of Persian. In their fight against Urdu they had already adopted Hindi as a symbol of their distinct socio-political identity. [21] In its origin, the Hindi movement was purely a religio-political or sectarian movement promoted by the Arya Samaj to displace the official status of Urdu in the Persian script due to its association with Muslim communal identity and Hindi's with Hindu revivalism and religious reform. Some experts say that Saraiki and Hindko are dialects of Punjabi while according to some other these are separate languages. [30] This also caused resentment among the Hindu population of what is now Haryana because they did not share equally in economic and political power with Punjabi Hindus. When the British colonialists occupied the Punjab they imposed two foreign languages English and Urdu. The vernacular papers of both groups, primarily published in Urdu, appealed to their respective communities to show loyalties to their own language. It was only a dialect of Hindi without a strong literary tradition and one that could not be raised to the status of a state language due to its backwardness. It represents the Punjabi Culture in Punjab of both India and Pakistan. Interestingly, Punjabi did not receive a proper role or status even under Maharaja Ranjit Singh. As Atul Kohli asserts: Indira Gandhi's narrow partisan concerns were important causal ingredients in the Punjab's tragic turmoil. The continuing evasiveness, indifference and insensitivity to Punjab issues and Sikh sensibilities has given rise to militancy in Punjab which during the past two decades has been suppressed through the introduction of draconian laws, thus thwarting all channels of democratic expression. The Hindi movement in nineteenth-century Punjab was led by Punjabi Hindus, themselves educated in English and Urdu. As Punjabi is the official language of Punjab, it gets the name from the state itself meaning ‘The Land of Five Rivers’. Strong support Apart from Punjabi, Saraiki is the other important language spoken by majority of the people in Punjab. [25] The Punjabi language became an instrument of political struggle. [44], Another outcome is that the Qissa stream of the medieval Punjabi tradition, nurtured by the Muslim Punjabi poets in Persian script, was also ignored by the Sikh revivalist writers, and therefore could not contribute fully to the development of a modern Punjabi idiom due to its association with Muslim life and culture. Other major languages are Pashto (15%), Sindhi (14%), Saraiki (10%), Urdu (8%) and Balochi (4%). The pre-planned massacre of the Sikhs in Delhi and elsewhere greatly increased the alienation of the Sikh community making them feel like a humiliated minority whose future was dark and uncertain in their own country. Other major languages are Pashto (15%), Sindhi (14%), Saraiki (10%), Urdu (8%) and Balochi (4%). They colonized vast arable lands within Punjab and northwestern parts of Uttar Pradesh, joined the army in large numbers, built railroads, roads and bridges in India as well as abroad.[35]. The Languages of India are mainly from two bases:-Aryan and; Dravidian What is the history of this language? There are various languages spoken in the Western Himalayas that are loosely put together called “Pahari” which itself is a wide term which seems to include n number of different dialect unintelligible to the speaker of one language to the other. [72] Though the militancy in Punjab cannot be condoned, the deep gash inflicted on the Sikh psyche by the bloody drama hurt and anguished the community beyond measure. Archaeologists have discovered evidence of life in the Punjab region as early as 7000 B.C. The primary native language is Punjabi (being the most spoken language of Punjab province), but Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and so is dominant in education and literature. Punjabi has its origin in the eleventh century and is the successor of Sauraseni Prakrit. . Punjabi (پنجابی) is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan. the languages spoken in it are Punjabi and Hindi. (2) I will also try to demonstrate that the religious symbols improvised and utilized by leaders of political parties to mobilize nationalist sentiments rarely appealed to minority communities and indigenous groups. Central Indo-Aryan language spoken in Punjab, an area now divided between India and Pakistan, to the west, modern Punjabi merges into the Lahnda language. [5] The British rulers made Urdu a medium of school instruction and administration at the lower and middle levels with this in view. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the 11th most widely spoken language in India and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent . Later, it intermingled with the language brought in from Punjab by the Muslims and the by-product was Urdu. Search for the most up-to-date Languages course offers on Emagister. Languages and Religion in Punjab. [15] The discussions by Grierson and Gumperz enable an objective observer to understand that certain arguments advanced by Hindi proponents against the status of Punjabi are incorrect. In this quarrel Hindustani--a common name used by the superintendents of the census operations for both Hindi and Urdu--was weakened since the use of Hindi and Urdu was insistently forced on the informants. Some of the common languages are: Urdu: Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. Vocabulary. [54] This language was observed by John Gilchrist, a Scottish physician and indigo farmer. Famed for its inscrutable grammar and quite a lovely Cyrillic script, it remained one of the six languages spoken in the UN. Punjabi is the predominantly spoken language in the Punjab province of Pakistan (and the most widely spoken language in Pakistan according to the CIA factbook), although it has no official status there, and both Urdu and English are preferred languages of the elite. The resolution was moved by Cabinet Minister Charanjit Singh Channi and appealed to the Speaker to make the Punjabi language mandatory in all state government institutions and the functioning of the courts should also be ensured in Punjabi. Hindus, therefore, argued against Punjabi not because they had convincing reasons, but because Hindi was the language of their religious discourse and a symbol of their political dominance. [51] The Punjabi language, due to the inhibitive impact of the neo-religious Sikh literary movement, expressed secular ideas coming through the Western world at the start of the British period until the writings of Prof. Puran Singh, Dhani Ram Chatrik, Mohan Singh, Amrita Pritam, etc., appeared. Punjabi is mainly spoken in Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, and Delhi. Such an unrestrained power struggle, in turn, has been a crucial driving force behind the descent toward anarchy.[73]. Through their written form they are tied to the idea of civilization, which is simultaneously that of religion. It is rapidly developing into a language and the schools are no less useful or less popular for using it as medium of instruction’. Large segments of the population living in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, in spite of Punjabi being their language, give Telegu or Sanskrit as their second language. Pahadi Languages of the Punjab Himalayas . First, the intense literary activity generated by the Sikh movement as it sought self-definition converged with the desire to acquire a proper status for Punjabi. Speakers of other languages are about 4% of the total population. [50] The linguistic idiom born out of this situation also testified to a near absence of spontaneous and vital dialogue with intellectual and literary activity in other parts of the country. Though the government leaders did not want to accept such a demand on the basis of religion, a Punjabi suba was finally carved out in 1966. communalism is a colonial construct that enabled state control in the guise of mediating religious divisions." About Punjabi language: Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 102 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 10th most widely spoken language in the world. Some scholars claim that Sindhi is derived from Sanskrit with Arabic influences and others believe it has its origins in the Sami languages. The structure was established to an extent during the times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and acknowledged by the poet Shah Muhammad in his Jangnamah mabein Sikhan te Frangian (a narrative describing wars between the British and the Sikhs). Dying writes the author after thorough research and analysis primarily published in Urdu, Hindi and Hindustani are all languages... 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